New York and Kansas passed legislation granting full-practice authority to nurse practitioners in April of 2022. Learn more here.
In many states, the laws that establish nurse practitioner (NP) roles are in flux. For example, in 2020, Florida, a restricted practice state, passed a law establishing that with additional training in diagnosis and pharmacology, nurse practitioners with 3,000 hours of experience no longer need a physician’s supervision to operate a family medicine practice.
Nurse practitioner practice authority varies from state to state. This guide defines a nurse practitioner's scope of practice, explains the three levels of practice authority, and lists states by practice authority. Read on to understand how practice authority can affect your career as a nurse practitioner.
What Is Scope of Practice?
Scope of practice refers to the professional activities that each state authorizes nurses or other clinical staff to perform. A nurse practitioner's scope of practice can include assessing a patient’s condition, ordering tests, interpreting results and making diagnoses, prescribing medication, and ordering treatments. However, the details vary by state. For example, in some states, nurse practitioners must work under a physician’s supervision or in collaboration with a physician, while others are full practice authority states, in which nurse practitioners can practice without this supervision or collaboration.
How Scope of Practice Relates to Practice Authority
Scope of practice falls into three main categories, or levels, of practice authority: full, reduced, or restricted practice authority.
In full practice authority states, nurse practitioners can perform the full scope of practice without a supervising or collaborating physician. They can diagnose a patient, order tests, prescribe medication, and operate their own independent practices. Nurse practitioner independent practice states may require a certain level of experience working under a physician’s supervision or require additional training before allowing full practice authority. Because these requirements are not permanent, these states are still considered full practice authority states.
In reduced practice states, nurse practitioners can perform some of their scope of practice without physician supervision. These restrictions typically involve operating their own practices or prescribing certain types of medications. They rarely involve the nurse practitioner’s ability to order tests or diagnose conditions. For example, a nurse practitioner might need to be part of a practice that is supervised by a physician, rather than running their own practice, but within that practice, can operate with relative autonomy.
In restricted practice states, nurse practitioners must work under the supervision of a physician for all of their scope of practice. While they may have extensive autonomy in some nurse practitioner functions, they are not acting as independent practitioners. However, some states may loosen restrictions as the NP gains experience.
States by Nurse Practitioner Practice Authority
Each state establishes its own NP practice authority regulations. This list provides the latest nurse practitioner scope of practice by state or territory.
Full Practice Authority States/Territories
Featured Online MSN Programs
Reduced Practice Authority States/Territories
- Board of Nursing (NA)
- Nursing Statutes and Regulations Samoa does not have a Board of Nursing or a nurse practice act. In 2017, the House of Representatives introduced the American Samoa Nurse Practice Act.
Restricted Practice Authority States
- Board of Nursing
- Nursing Statutes and Regulations In 2018, South Carolina removed the previous requirement that collaborating or supervising physicians be located within a 45-mile radius of the NP’s practice and raised the number of NPs that a physician can supervise or collaborate with from three to six.
Nurse Practitioner Practice Authority FAQs
How does nurse practitioner authority vary by state?
Each state establishes the laws that govern nursing scope of practice. In full practice authority states, nurse practitioners can establish independent practices and do not need to work in partnership with or supervised by a physician. In other states, nurse practitioners may need to work under a physician or with a physician, though they otherwise can diagnose and treat patients without limitations. Other states limit certain nurse practitioner functions, such as prescribing medications.
In what states can an NP practice independently?
Currently, Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Guam, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Northern Mariana Islands, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, Washington, Washington D.C., and Wyoming are full practice authority states. However, this list is likely to grow as more states consider legislation to expand nurse practitioner authority.
Are NPs licensed by state?
All nurses, including NPs, are licensed by the state in which they practice or by a multi-state license. State boards of nursing establish the criteria for becoming licensed. These criteria include graduating from an accredited program and passing a certification examination, as well as maintaining licensing through continuing education.
Where are NPs able to practice independently?
NPs can practice independently in full practice authority states, meaning that they can operate their own practices for the population for which they are licensed. In other states, while they may perform all of their job functions with a high level of independence, they must work in collaboration with or under the supervision of a physician.
The Push for Full Practice Authority
Expanding nurse practitioner practice authority produces many benefits for healthcare consumers. It increases the availability of healthcare providers who can diagnose and treat health conditions; expands the availability of family practitioners during current and projected shortages; and because nurse practitioner salaries are lower than physician salaries, provides care at a lower cost. However, many individuals and organizations, especially physician organizations, express concerns that many conditions that should be diagnosed and treated only by physicians are instead being treated by nurse practitioners and that healthcare payers, especially insurance companies, may pressure healthcare providers to use nurse practitioners instead of physicians. This, they argue, can result in a lower quality of care and outcomes for patients with complex or serious health conditions. Physicians also earn more from supervising NPs and would lose out on this revenue source if NPs could practice independently. Given the rapid growth in full practice authority states, it seems that state legislators believe in the positive impact of expanding NP practice authority.
Elizabeth M. Clarke, FNP, MSN, RN, MSSW
Elizabeth Clarke (Poon) is a board-certified family nurse practitioner who provides primary and urgent care to pediatric populations. She earned a BSN and MSN from the University of Miami.
Clarke is a paid member of our Healthcare Review Partner Network. Learn more about our review partners here.
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